Vitamins, Herbal and Dietary Supplements
You may be asked PTCB questions on vitamins, herbal and dietary supplements. Here, we review the fundamental details you need to know!
Remember, there are more than just medicines in pharmacies.
As the qualified healthcare professional that sits between the pharmacist and the patient / member of the local community, it’s essential that you understand the role of vitamins, herbal and dietary supplements.
Part of this process involves knowing when it’s appropriate to discuss the case with your pharmacist. For example – there may be a potential drug interaction, or perhaps you need more clarification on a given herb or supplement.
However, what is clear is that – for the PTCB test – aspiring pharmacy technicians must have a basic understanding of vitamins, herbal and dietary supplements. The table of details below are must-know details that often get tested.
Cover this base of the exam by committing these facts to memory!
Vitamins are divided into:
- Water-soluble vitamins – B vitamins and C
- Fat-soluble vitamins – A, D, E and K
As their name suggests, water-soluble vitamins – such as vitamins B and C – are soluble in water. This means that excess vitamin may be eliminated through the urine. This means we require a consistent supply of these vitamins daily to replenish what vitamin is lost.
In contrast, fat soluble vitamins are not readily eliminated and so are widely stored within the body for prolonged periods of time. Vitamins A, D, E and K are examples of fat-soluble vitamins.
|FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS|
|Vitamin A||Retinol/retinals||Vital for vision, skeletal growth, and regulation of mucous membranes of the oral cavity and eyes.|
|Vitamin D||Calciferol||Vital for bone and teeth formation by assisting absorption of calcium and phosphorus.|
|Vitamin E||Tocopherols||Antioxidant properties.|
|Vitamin K||Phytomenadione||Vital for blood clotting (coagulation).|
|WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS|
|Vitamin C||Ascorbic acid||Assists with wound healing, immune system function; and collagen synthesis.|
|Vitamin B1||Thiamine||Promotes normal appetite; essential for the nervous system to function.|
|Vitamin B2||Riboflavin||Vision / healthy skin.|
|Vitamin B3||Niacin||Digestion, appetite, healthy skin.|
|Vitamin B5||Pantothenic acid||Hormone formation and nutrient metabolism.|
|Vitamin B6||Pyridoxine||Promotes formation of red blood cells, insulin and hemoglobin.|
|Vitamin B7||Biotin||Essential to metabolise proteins and carbohydrates.|
|Vitamin B9||Folic acid||Promotes red blood cell formation; important in pregnancy to prevent neural tube defects.|
|Vitamin B12||Cobalamins||Promotes red blood cell production; energy metabolism; and collagen synthesis.|
Herbs and Supplements
It’s worth recalling that herbs, supplements, and other forms of alternative medicine – such as homeopathy – are highly popular throughout the United States.
It’s important, therefore, for pharmacy technicians to be aware of these herbs and supplements – identifying the drug and knowing what conditions they may be used to treat. Be aware, though, that because these herbs and supplements are often available over the counter, or within the pharmacy without a prescription, there is often contested evidence as to how effective they are. Though we list the common indications associated with each herb and supplement, consider that evidence is often lacking as to the actual effectiveness that they have.
Herbs and supplements are examinable on the PTCB test.
Here are the top 20 herbs and supplements you need to know.
|ALOE VERA||Burns, such as sunburn; dry skin.|
|BILBERRY||Ocular disorders; bowel disturbances.|
|BLACK COHOSH||Premenopausal symptoms.|
|CHONDROITIN||Bone disorders; arthritic bones.|
|CRANBERRY||Maintaining urinary health/reducing infections.|
|ECHINACEA||Colds; reducing symptoms.|
|EVENING PRIMROSE||Premenstrual symptoms.|
|FISH OIL||Cholesterol; blood pressure maintenance.|
|GARLIC||Maintaining blood pressure; heart health.|
|GINGKO BILOBA||Improve memory; cognitive ability.|
|GINGENG||Fatigue; memory; menopause symptoms.|
|GLUCOSAMINE||Osteoarthritis; bone disorders.|
|GREEN TEA||Metabolic syndromes.|
|KAVA KAVA||Stress, tiredness, anxiety.|
|MILK THISTLE||Liver disease.|
|MELATONIN||Jet lag; insomnia.|
|ST. JOHN’S WORT||Depression.|
|SAW PALMETTO||Prostate disorders.|
If you want to test your knowledge of vitamins, herbal and dietary supplements, become a registered member of PTCB Test Prep and gain instant, online access to our PTCB practice tests.
Check back to our PTCB blog soon for more neat articles on the clinical details you need to know to pass the 2019 exam and become a qualified pharmacy technician in the United States.